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Greece had 10.3 million inhabitants in 2022. Annual population growth was −0.06%. The median age of the population in 2020 was 45.6 years. Greece has one of the oldest populations in the world. The number of births per woman was statistically 1.3 in 2020, one of the lowest in the world. The life expectancy of residents of Greece from birth was 81.1 years in 2020 (women: 83.7, men: 78.6).

Greece has a total area of 131,957 km²: 106,915 km² are on the mainland, 25,042 km² (almost 19%) are spread over 3,054 islands, 87 of which are inhabited. Due to the wealth of islands, Greece has a remarkable coastline of 13,676 km, of which around 4,000 km are on the Greek mainland. The sometimes quite large distances within the country are another geographical feature in relation to its relatively small total area. The linear distance between the island of Othoni near Corfu and the island of Kastelorizo in the extreme south-east of Greece is 983 km. The country has the smallest geographic extent – less than 550 km as the crow flies – in an east-west direction.